An introduction to Wide Sargasso Sea, by Jean Rhys


Wide Sargasso Sea tells the story of Antoinette Cosway, a white Creole girl growing up in post-slavery Jamaica.

While based on Rhys’s own life, this is no fond memoir. It’s a bubbling mass of blame, black magic, deceit and betrayal.

At the novel’s end Antoinette is in England, incarcerated and insane in the attic rooms at Thornfield Hall. This is the true destination for Wide Sargasso Sea, because the book is an imagined backstory to Charlotte Brontë’s 19th-century novel Jane Eyre.

As such, Rhys gives voice and humanity to the ‘madwoman in the attic’. She brings Bertha – Mrs Rochester – out of hiding and into the daylight.

Like Good Morning Midnight, Rhys’s 1939 novel of travel, longing and madness, Wide Sargasso Sea is ‘somewhat’ autobiographical.

Rhys was born in Dominica in 1890, also the daughter of a white Creole woman. It’s likely this which informs Antoinette’s sense of disenfranchisement.

As Margaret Mitchell describes a vanishing world of Gone with the Wind, so too are the Cosways trapped in a time and place that is crumbling around them. They aren’t accepted by Europeans, and aren’t trusted by the Jamaicans:

“They say when trouble comes close ranks, and so the white people did. But we were not in their ranks.”

Later Antoinette reveals her mother “still rode about every morning, not caring that the black people stood about in groups to jeer at her, especially after her riding clothes grew shabby (they notice clothes, they know about money)”.

Form and themes

Rhys’s writing in Wide Sargasso Sea feels ahead of its time; it stands alongside much later feminist reclamations such as The Handmaid’s Tale and The Bloody Chamber.

Equally timeless is Rhys’s fluttering narrative – poetic, wild stream of consciousness that suggests the text itself is on the edge of madness.

Still, if Wide Sargasso Sea aims to even the score for Mrs Rochester it has few victories to speak of.

At the start of the novel slavery has been dismantled, but both black and white characters remain trapped in the supposedly free world, one still chained to historical fact, bigotry, racism and cruelty.

Similarly, Antoinette and her husband bind to each other, first in marriage and then in delusion and cruelty. Themes which appear in Jane Eyre – madness, the unfairness of social existence – are inflated here by racial fetishisation and fears of black magic.

Rhys’s ‘Mr Rochester’ is obsessed with the idea that he’s been tricked into an unequal marriage (he says this even as he pockets his wife’s property and money). He fixates on her madness, and speculates on zombies.

In Jane Eyre, Rochester’s sense of duty means he must keep Bertha in the attic for her own good. In Wide Sargasso Sea, what neither can see is that both are barely living, both are mad – and so they come to imprison each other.

Wide Sargasso Sea, by Jean Rhys

Quoted edition published by Penguin Classics, 2000

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Picture credit: Pok Rie